When working with exploratory students, must incorporate a strong focus on developing students' self-knowledge through self-assessment activities and reflection (NACADA, 2020).

According to John Holland's theory of personality and career choice, individual interests are divided into six themes. A description of each is listed below:

  • Realistic [R]: "Do-ers." A realistic person prefers concrete tasks. He or she likes working alone, enjoys the outdoors, rugged work, likes working with hands, mechanical abilities.
  • Investigative [I]: "Think-ers" An investigative personality uses abstract/analytical skills to figure things out. Investigatives are "thinkers" who strive to complete tasks and often prefer to do so independently.
  • Artistic [A]: "Creators" The artistic members of our society enjoy creating things. They are imaginative and creative in thought. They think outside the box and dislike routine tasks.
  • Social [S]: "Helpers" A social personality type enjoys interacting with people. Helpers tend to be concerned with social problems and want to help others. They are helpers in society. They are energized by helping and socializing.
  • Enterprising [E]: "Persuaders" Those who are enterprising are natural leaders. They are willing to take on challenges and are extroverted. They can be aggressive, charismatic, convincing, and enthusiastic. They value money and power.
  • Conventional [C] "Organizers": Someone who is conventional prefers structured tasks and skilled at organizing and needs details. They like routine. They are often conservative. Conventonals enjoy working alone and with numbers and data.

For Exploratory students, the use of the Holland code can be beneficial. Students can identify their main three-letter code through self-assessment instruments such as the Strong Interest Inventory available through CAPS.

According to John Holland's theory of personality and career choice, individual interests are divided into six themes. A description of each is listed below:

  • Realistic [R]: "Do-ers." A realistic person prefers concrete tasks. He or she likes working alone, enjoys the outdoors, rugged work, likes working with hands, mechanical abilities.
  • Investigative [I]: "Think-ers" An investigative personality uses abstract/analytical skills to figure things out. Investigatives are "thinkers" who strive to complete tasks and often prefer to do so independently.
  • Artistic [A]: "Creators" The artistic members of our society enjoy creating things. They are imaginative and creative in thought. They think outside the box and dislike routine tasks.
  • Social [S]: "Helpers" A social personality type enjoys interacting with people. Helpers tend to be concerned with social problems and want to help others. They are helpers in society. They are energized by helping and socializing.
  • Enterprising [E]: "Persuaders" Those who are enterprising are natural leaders. They are willing to take on challenges and are extroverted. They can be aggressive, charismatic, convincing, and enthusiastic. They value money and power.
  • Conventional [C] "Organizers": Someone who is conventional prefers structured tasks and skilled at organizing and needs details. They like routine. They are often conservative. Conventonals enjoy working alone and with numbers and data.

For Exploratory students, the use of the Holland code can be beneficial. Students can identify their main three-letter code through self-assessment instruments such as the Strong Interest Inventory available through CAPS.

Myers-Briggs Personality Types (MBTI)

If you're wondering which ESU majors appeal to your skills, values, and interests, then consider using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). The MBTI uses scientifically-based insights to categorize personalities into 16 possible types and identify common behaviors and traits. The result means that you'll understand yourself better so you can make a major choice that best fits YOU!

  • ENFP - "The Champion"

    ENFPs are creative, energetic, outgoing, service-oriented individuals with well-developed verbal and written communication skills. ENFPs are a motivaing perscence and are natural leaders. They approach work logically and rationally, and are problem solvers. They are intuitive and perceptive and are good team players. ENFP's have many skills and talents; they are often coined as "multipotentialites." They do not like to be confined by schedules and rountine tasks. They thrive in flexible environments and seek the challenge of new opportunities. ENFPs make up 8.1 percent of the U.S. population.

    They value: Origniality

    They appear as: Imaginative, Enthusiastic, Expressive

    Characteristics of ENFP

    Energetic, Expressive, Open, Strategic, Future-minded, Empathetic, Cooperative, Loyal, Flexible, Curious, Informal, Enthusiastic, and creative. Embrace possibilities. Make connections between events and information quickly identify patterns. Seek affirmation, but also freely offer appreciation and support. Spontaneous and flexible, great improvisers. Articulate.

    Potential Majors of ENFP

    Advertising, Art and Design, Athletic Training, Business Administration, Chemistry, Communications, Computer Science, Criminal Justice, Education (Elementary or Secondary), English, Environmental Design, Exercise Science, Hotel, Restuarant and Tourism Management, Digital Media Technology, Management, English/Writing track, Pre-Law, Management, Marketing, Medical Technology, Modern Languages, Recreation and Leisure Management, Health and Physical Education, Political Science, Psychology, Public Relations, Social Work, Sociology, Speech-Language Pathology, Theatre

    Weaknesses to Improve

  • INFP - "The Healer"

    Strive to improve society, INFPs are both idealists and perfectionists. INFPs possess robust value systems, are future-oriented, creative, and highly religious or philosophical individuals. Driven to meet others' needs, INFPs tend to choose creative or human service-oriented careers that allow them to use their intuitive sense of empathy and remarkable communication skills. INFPs represent 4.4 percent of the U.S. population.

    They value: Empathy.

    They appear as: Passionate, Intuitive, Creative

    Characteristics of INFP

    Idealistic, personal solid value system, loyal to people who are important to them. They seek to live a life congruent with personal values—curious, possibility seeking, often catalysts for executing ideas. Seek to understand people. Help people fulfill their potential. Adaptable and flexible. Accepting until a personal value is threatened. Quiet, Reflective, Strategic, Future-Oriented, Empathetic, Cooperative, Loyal, Flexible, Curious, Informal

    Potential Majors of INFP

    Art and Design, Athletic Training, Biology, Business Administration, Counseling Psychology, Education, English, Digital Media Technology, Management, History, Human Resource Management, English/Writing track, Medical Technology, Modern Languages, Music, Nursing, Philosophy, Pre-Law, Psychology, Social Work, Sociology, Speech-Language Pathology, Theatre.

    Weaknesses to Improve

  • ENFJ - "The Teacher"

    ENFJs are other-focused individuals who enjoy creating possibilities to help others with their long-term development. They understand others' views and possess the communication skills needed in many occupations, especially in teaching and counseling. ENFJs prefer to learn new things and choose environments that offer variety, problem-solving, a focus on the future, and opportunities to support others and fulfill their humanitarian values. ENFJs make up 2.5 percent of the U.S. population.

    They value: Collaboration.

    They appear as: Compassionte, Supportive, Inclusive

    Characteristics of ENFJ

    Warm, empathetic, responsive, and responsible. Intuitively understand feelings, needs, and motivations of others. See the potential in others, help others achieve their potential. May serve as catalysts for inter/intrapersonal growth. Loyal, responsive to both praise and criticism. Sociable, natural group facilitators who offer inspiring leadership.

    Potential Majors of ENFJ

    Advertising, Art and Design, Athletic Training, Business Administration, Communication, Counseling Psychology, Criminal Justice, Education, English, Entrepreneurial Management, Digital Media Technology, Management, HRTM, Human Resource Management, English/Writing Track, Marketing, Modern Languages, Music, Political Science, Psychology, Public Relations, Social Work, Sociology, Speech-Language Pathology, Theatre.

    Weaknesses to Improve

  • INFJ - "The Counselor"

    INFJs offer unparalleled insight into people and situations. INFJs express themselves creatively, experience deep feelings, and have strong, life-guiding convictions. Passionately humanitarian. INFJs tend to be idealists but are generally "doers" working to make ideals a reality. Inclined to follow their inner vision, they seek to establish and maintain harmonious relationships with others. They are creative, with skilled spoken and written communication abilities. I NFJs make up 1.5 percent of the U.S. population.

    They value: Creativity.

    They appear as: Inventive, Idealistic, Insightful

    Characteristics of INFJ

    Seek to connect meaning in ideas, relationships, and possessions. Seek to understand the motivations of others. Insightful regarding people. Conscientious and committed to their firm values. Offer a clear vision about how best to serve the common good—organized and decisive in implementing their vision.

    Potential Majors of INFJ

    Advertising, Art and Design, Athletic Training, Communication, Counseling Psychology, Criminal Justice, Dance, Education, English, Exercise Science, Digital Media, Health Science, History, Human Resource Management, Writing, Marketing, Medical Technology, Music, Environmental Science, Recreation Leisure Management, Nursing, Health and Physical Education, Pre-Dental, Pre-Law, Pre-Medical, Psychology, Public Relations, Social Work, Sociology, Speech-Language Pathology, Theatre.

    Weaknesses for Improvement

  • ENTP - "The Visionary"

    ENTPs are idea people. They have a wide range of abilities and interests. They easily understand theoretical concepts. ENTPs think logically and are creative problem-solvers. They are natural and inspirational leaders who are excellent at gaining buy-in from others. They seek personal freedom to exercise their creativity. They like to generate new ideas to solve problems. They are most comfortable in casual environments; they dislike rules and restrictions. ENTPs make up 3.2 percent of the U.S. population.

    They value: Knowledge

    They appear as: Assertive, Competitive, Resourceful

    Characteristics of ENTP

    Quick, ingenious, stimulating, alert, and outspoken. Resourceful. Uses resources to solve new and challenging problems. Generate conceptual possibilities and then analyze them strategically. Reads other people well. Bored by routine, rarely will do the same thing the same way, apt to turn to one new interest after another.

    Potential Majors of ENTP

    Accounting, Biology, Business Administration, Computer Science, Computer Information Systems, Criminal Justice, Earth/Space Science, Education, English, Exercise Science, Finance, Geology, Health Science, Information Systems, Logistics and Supply Chain Management, Medical Technology, Natural Resources and Environmental Management, Nursing, Pre-Law, Pre-Medical.

    Weaknesses to Improve

  • INTP - "The Architect"

    INTPs create ideas and systems. They prefer theoretical over practical. INTPs love theory and abstract concepts. INTPs are future-oriented; they value truth, knowledge, and competency. INTPs usually enjoy technical fields that allow them to apply logic to theories to find solutions and develop innovative approaches and systems. They like professionalism in a work environment that encourages free thinking, independence. They are good at improvisation. Comprise up 3.3 percent of the U.S. population.

    They value: Ingenuity

    They appear as: Conceptual, Analytical, Decisive

    Characteristics of INTP

    Logical, Flexible, Curious, and Informal. They develop logical explanations for everything interesting to them. Theoretical and abstract, interested more in ideas than in social interaction. Quiet, contained, flexible, and adaptable. Have unusual ability to focus in-depth to solve problems in their area of interest. Skeptical, sometimes critical, always analytical.

    Potential Majors of INTP

    Art, Biochemistry, Biology, Business Administration, Chemistry, Communication, Computer Information Systems, Counseling, Criminal Justice, Economics, Entrepreneurial Management, Finance, Digital Media, History, Supply Chain Management, Management, Mathematical Economics Mathematical Sciences, Medical Technology, Modern Languages, Music, Environmental Science, Philosophy, Physics, Pre-Law, Pre-Medical, Psychology, Sociology, Theatre

    Weaknesses to Improve

  • ENTJ - "The Commander"

    ENTJs are born leaders with a need to create order. They are quick decision-makers, focused, and ideal for the corporate world. They need to take control of situations for their leadership skills to shine. ENTJs are successful in business endeavors. ENTJs solve problems and enforce structure creatively. ENTJs comprise 1.8 percent of the U.S. population.

    They value: Command.

    They appear as Analytical, Blunt, Planned

    Characteristics of ENTJ

    Candid, decisive, strong leaders. Quick to notice illogical and inefficient procedures and policies, develop and implement comprehensive systems to solve organizational problems. Enjoy long-term planning and goal setting. Usually well informed, well-read, enjoy expanding their knowledge and passing it on to others. Forceful in presenting their ideas.

    Potential Majors of ENTJ

    Accounting, Advertising, Art, Biology, Business Administration Business Information Technology, Chemistry, Computer Information Systems,Criminal Justice, Economics (Business), Education (Secondary), Finance, Hospitality Management, Human Resource Management, International Business, Marketing, Political Science, Pre-Law , Pre-Medical , Psychology, Sociology, Theatre.

    Weaknesses for Improvement

  • INTJ - "The Mastermind"

    INTJs are strong individuals who continually seek novel and new ways of looking at things. They are insightful and easily come to new understandings. INTJs keep to themselves and are considered the most independent of all the 16 personality types. They are self-confident and future-oriented-they do not get stuck in the past. They are builders of systems and appliers of theoretical models and focus on possibilities. They tend to prefer autonomous environments. INTJs comprise 2.1 percent of the U.S. population.

    They value: Effectiveness.

    They appear as: Analytical, Tough-Minded, Methodical

    Characteristics of INTJ

    INTPs are original thinkers and remarkable ability to implement their ideas to achieve goals. They quickly recognize patterns in their surrounding environment and develop long-range explanatory perspectives. When committed to a task, they can plan out a job to completion. Skeptical and independent, they have high standards of competence and performance—for themselves and others.

    Potential Majors for INTJ

    Art, Biochemistry, Biology, Business Administration, Business Information Technology, Chemistry, Communications, Computer Information Systems, Counseling, Criminal Justice, Earth Science, Economics, Education, Exercise Science, Finance, Geology, Digital Media, Health Science, Human Resource Management, Economics, Mathematical Sciences, Mathematics Education, Medical Technology, Environmental Sciences, Logistics and Supply Chain Management, Physics, Pre-Medical, Psychology, Sociology.

    Weaknesses to Improve

  • ESFJ - "The Provider"

    ESFJs are warm, energetic, and socail butterflys. ESFJs are hard-workers, organized, conscientious, and enjoy being part of team. ESFJs are driven to lead and help people in very practical ways. They observe others’ needs and organize a plan to meet those needs. ESFJs comprise 12.3 percent of the U.S. population.

    They value: Harmony

    They appear as: Helpful, Supportive, Pragmatic

    Characteristics of ESFJ

    Warmhearted, conscientious, and cooperative. Need harmonious environments and work pointedly to establish harmony. Enjoy working work with others. Take pride in completing tasks accurately, efficiently, and timely. Loyal, follow through on commitments- even in small matters. Observe and recognize the needs of others and try to meet them. They want to be appreciated for who they are and what they contribute.

    Potential Majors for ESFJ

    Accounting, Athletic Training, Business Administration, Chemistry, Counseling Psychology, Criminal Justic, Education, Exercise Science, Finance, Health Science, Hospitality Management, Logistics and Supply Chain Management, Marketing, Medical Technology, Modern Languages, Environmental Sciences, Nursing, Physical Education, Pre-Law, Pre-Medical, Psychology, Public Relations, Social Work, Speech-Language Pathology, Theatre.

    Weaknesses to Improve

  • ESTJ - "The Supervisor"

    ESTJs focus on facts and concrete information. ESTJs are analytical, conscientious, decisive, direct, efficient, responsible, and factual individuals. ESTJs seek order and continuity. They want explicit rules, expectations, and standards to follow. Leadership roles come quickly for the ESTJ, and they seek results-oriented, practical work. ESTJs comprise approximately 8.7 percent of the U.S. population.

    They value: Organization

    They appear as: Methodical, Focused, Prepared

    Characteristics of ESTJ

    Energizing, Communicative, Open-minded, Practical, Action-Oriented, Objective, Rational, Logical, Decisive, Committed, Rigid, Dependable, Self-confident Hard-working, Traditional, Strong leadership abilities, realistic, matter-of-fact, quick to implement decisions. Organizes projects and people, result-oriented and efficient. Pays attention to routine details. Has clear, logical standards and systematically follows them--expects others to do so as well. Forceful in implementing their plans.

    Potential Majors for ESTJ

    Accounting, Athletic Training, Business Administration, Business Information Technology, Criminal Justice, Finance, Restaurant Management, Hospitality Management, Industrial Technology, Political Science, Pre-Medical, Public Relations, Secondary Education, Social Work.

    Weaknesses to Improve

  • ISFJ - "The Protector"

    ISFJs desire to serve others. They are warm, kind individuals who emit an aura of quiet warmth, compassion, and dependability. ISFJs are diligent and conscientious. They tend to be quiet and serious. ISFJs have exceptional people-observation skills, which allow them to determine what people want or need; then use their organizational abilities to create a structured plan to meet the need. They have a keen sense of space and awareness of aesthetic quality; this gives them likely capabilities in practical artistic endeavors, such as interior and fashion design. ISFJs comprise 13.8 percent of the U.S. population.

    They value: Consideration.

    They appear as: Cooperative, Committed, Sympahetic

    Characteristics of ISFJ

    Reliable, practical, sensitive, detail-oriented, relaxed, reflective, practical, action-oriented, empathetic, cooperative, loyal, decisive, committed, rigid, quiet, responsible, and conscientious. Committed and intentional with obligations. Thorough, precise, and accurate. Considerate, thoguhtful, and concerned with how others feel. Strive to create an orderly and harmonious environment at work and home.

    Majors for ISFJ

    Art, Biochemistry, Biology, Business Administration, Business Information Technology, Chemistry, Communications, Computer Information Systems, Counseling Psychology, Criminal Justice and Criminology, Dance Performance, Economics, Entrepreneurial Management, Environmental Science, Finance, Graphic Arts, History, Hospitality Management, Medical Technology, Music, Nursing, Pre-Law, Pre-Medical, Psychology, Social Work, Speech-Language Pathology.

    Weaknesses to Improve

  • ISTJ - "The Inspector"

    ISTJs are dependable and gritty. They are quiet, serious, responsible, and loyal individuals. They believe in laws and traditions. They offer a strong need to foster security and peace. ISTJs prefer to work alone, have good organizational skills and focus. They like to create order and structure and therefore fit nicely into management positions. ISTJs represent approximately 11.6 percent of the U.S. population.

    They most value: Productivity.

    They appear as: Persistent, Logical, Practical

    Characteristics of ISTJ

    Quiet, serious, successful, and dependable. Practical, matter-of-factly, realistic, and responsible. Make decisons logically based on what should be done and work toward it steadfastly without distraction. Take pleasure in making everything orderly and organized—their work, their home, their life. Value traditions and loyalty.

    Potential Majors of ISTJ

    Accounting, Biology, Business Administration, Computer Science, Computer Information Systems, Criminal Justice, Earth Science, Education, English, Exercise Science, Finance, Health Science, Logistics and Supply Chain Management, Medical Technology, Nursing, , Pre-Law, Pre-Medical.

    Weaknesses to Improve

  • ESFP - "The Performer"

    ESFPs love to experience new things and gain energy from contact with people. ESFPs have dynamic people skills, like to help people in practical ways; they often serve in the role of peacemaker. ESFPs enjoy working independently; they are resourceful and like hands-on involvement. They find it rewarding to see the results of their labor. They are strong communicators and collaborators. ESFPs comprise 8.5 percent of the U.S. population.

    They value: Realism.

    They appear as: Energetic, Inquisitive, Encouraging

    Characteristics of ESFP

    Outgoing, friendly, and accepting of differences. They are exuberant lovers of life, people, and material comforts. They enjoy collaborating to make things happen. Offer common sense and a realistic perspective to their tasks and tend to make work fun. Flexible and spontaneous, they adapt readily to new people and environments. Learn best by trying a new skill alongside other people.

    Potential Majors for ESFP

    Art, Athletic Training, Counseling Psychology, Criminal Justice,, Dietetics, Education, Exercise Science, Health Science, Hospitality Management, Human Resource Management, Supply Chain Management, Music, Nursing, Physical Education, Political Science, Pre-Law, Pre-Medical, Psychology, Public Relations, Social Work, Sociology, Speech-Language Pathology, Theatre.

    Weaknesses to Improve

  • ESTP - "The Promoter"

    ESTPs are outgoing, enthusiastic "do-ers" who live in a fast-paced world. They have excellent interpersonal skills and intuitive abilities to size up a situation and act accordingly. They have a unique ability to react quickly in an emergency or crisis. ESTPs tend to choose careers that allow a lot of interaction with people in a fast-paced environment and do not require routine, detailed tasks. ESTPs are excellent salespeople. ESTPs comprise 4.3 percent of the U.S. population.

    They value: Competition

    They appear as: Active, Pragmatic, Incisive, Demanding

    Characteristics of ESTP

    Flexible and tolerant, they pragmatically approach tasks with a focus on immediate results. They tend to be bored by theories and conceptual explanations; they prefer to solve the problem energetically. Focus on the here and now, spontaneous, enjoy each moment to be active with others. Enjoy material comforts and style. Learn best through doing.

    Potential Majors for ESTP

    Art, Athletic Training, Biology, Computer Science, Computer Information Systems, Criminal Justice, Education, Entrepreneurial Management, Exercise Science, Finance, Marketing, Medical Technology, Music, Environmental Management, Pre-Medical, Theatre.

    Weaknesses to Improve

  • ISTP - "The Crafter"

    Have a compelling drive to understand how and why things work; ISTPs are action-oriented doers. They are present-minded. They are practical, realistic, and have excellent logical ability and a strong voice of reason. Possessing excellent technical skills, they quickly learn how to operate tools and machinery. They are great problem solvers and manage a crisis well. As leaders, ISTPs are usually up-front leading the charge. ISTPs comprise 5.4 percent of the U.S. population.

    They most value: Efficiency

    They appear as: Active, Capable, Concrete, Higly Skilled

    Characteristics of ISTP

    Tolerant and flexible, they are quiet observers who can recognize a problem then act quickly to find workable solutions. They analyze what works and readily peruse large amounts of data seeking core issues of practical issues. Fascinated by cause and effect, they organize facts using logical principles; value efficiency.

    Potential Majors for ISTP

    Art, Athletic Training, Biology, Business Administration, Computer Science, Criminal Justice Economics, Exercise Science, Finance, Health Science, Supply Chain Management, Mathematical Sciences, Medical Technology, Environmental Management, Physical Education, Pre-Law, Pre-Medical, Theatre.

    Weaknesses to Improve

References:

Contact Us

The Department of Academic Success provides the diverse student population of ESU with support, opportunities and academic programs to enhance engagement; to support transition to the university; to encourage life-long learning; and to foster academic achievement and degree completion.

Contact Information

Campus Address
Rosenkrans East
Phone:
(570) 422-3164
Fax:
(570) 422-3898 (Fax)
Title of Department Leader
Assistant Professor/Department Chair
Name
Kelly L. McKenzie
Phone:
(570) 422-3741