When working with exploratory students must incorporate a strong focus on developing students' self-knowledge through self-assessment activities and reflection (NACADA, 2020).

According to John Holland's theory of personality and career choice, individual interests can be divided into six themes. A brief description of each is listed below:

  • Realistic [R]: "Do-ers". A realistic person prefers concrete tasks. He or she likes working alone, enjoys the outdoors, rugged work, likes working with hands, mechanical abilities.
  • Investigative [I]: "Think-ers" Someone who is investigative likes to use his or her abstract or analytical skills to figure things out. He or she is a "thinker" who strives to complete tasks and often prefers to do so independently.
  • Artistic [A]: "Creators" The artistic members of our society like to create things. They are imaginative and creative in thought. They think outside the box, and dislike routine tasks.
  • Social [S]: "Helpers" A social person prefers interacting with people. He or she tends to be concerned with social problems and wants to help others. They are helpers in society. They are energized by helping and socializing.
  • Enterprising [E]: "Persuaders" Those who are enterprising are natural leaders. They are willing to take on challenges and are extroverted. They can be aggressive as well. They value money and power. They are charismatic, convincing and enthusiastic.
  • Conventional [C] "Organizers": Someone who is conventional prefers structured tasks, is a skilled at organization and needs details. They like routine. He or she is often conservative. Enjoys working alone and with numbers and data.

For Exploratory students, the use of the Holland code can be extremely helpful. Students can identify their main three letter code through self-assessment instruments such as the Strong Interest Inventory available through CAPS.

According to John Holland's theory of personality and career choice, individual interests can be divided into six themes. A brief description of each is listed below:

  • Realistic [R]: "Do-ers". A realistic person prefers concrete tasks. He or she likes working alone, enjoys the outdoors, rugged work, likes working with hands, mechanical abilities.
  • Investigative [I]: "Think-ers" Someone who is investigative likes to use his or her abstract or analytical skills to figure things out. He or she is a "thinker" who strives to complete tasks and often prefers to do so independently.
  • Artistic [A]: "Creators" The artistic members of our society like to create things. They are imaginative and creative in thought. They think outside the box, and dislike routine tasks.
  • Social [S]: "Helpers" A social person prefers interacting with people. He or she tends to be concerned with social problems and wants to help others. They are helpers in society. They are energized by helping and socializing.
  • Enterprising [E]: "Persuaders" Those who are enterprising are natural leaders. They are willing to take on challenges and are extroverted. They can be aggressive as well. They value money and power. They are charismatic, convincing and enthusiastic.
  • Conventional [C] "Organizers": Someone who is conventional prefers structured tasks, is a skilled at organization and needs details. They like routine. He or she is often conservative. Enjoys working alone and with numbers and data.

For Exploratory students, the use of the Holland code can be extremely helpful. Students can identify their main three letter code through self-assessment instruments such as the Strong Interest Inventory available through CAPS.

Myers-Briggs Personality Types (MBTI)

If you're wondering which careers or majors appeal to you, then consider using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. This test uses scientifically-based insights to categorize personalities into 16 possible types and identify common behaviors. The end result means that you'll understand yourself a little better so you can make a major choice that best fits your personality.

  • ENFP - "The Champion"

    ENFPs are creative, energetic, outgoing, service-oriented individuals with well-developed verbal and written communication skills. ENFPs are the driving force that makes things happen and therefore are natural leaders. They work logically and rationally, and they are unique problem solvers. They are intuitive and perceptive about people and make good team players. Possessing a broad range of skills and talents, ENFPs often change careers several times. They seek out careers not confined by strict schedules and mundane tasks but provide a flexible environment that challenges them with new opportunities to see their innovations become reality. ENFPs make up 8.1 percent of the U.S. population.

    They most value: Innovation

    They appear to others as: Imaginative, Enthusiastic, Expressive

    Characteristics of ENFP

    Energizing, Communicative, Open, Strategic, Future-Oriented, Empathetic, Cooperative, Loyal, Flexible, Curious, Informal, Warmly enthusiastic and imaginative. See life as full of possibilities. Make connections between events and information very quickly, and confidently proceed based on the patterns they see. Want a lot of affirmation from others, and readily give appreciation and support. Spontaneous and flexible, often rely on their ability to improvise and their verbal fluency.

    Potential Majors of ENFP

    Advertising, Art, Athletic Training, Business Administration, Chemistry, Communications, Computer Science, Criminal Justice and Criminology, Nutrition and Dietetics, Education (Elementary or Secondary), English, Environmental Design, Urban Planning, Exercise Science, Fashion Merchandising, Hospitality and Food Management, Graphic Arts, Management, Interior Design, Journalism, Pre-Law, Management, Marketing, Medical Technology, Modern Languages, Recreation and Leisure Management, Health and Physical Education, Political Science, Pre-Law, Psychology, Public Relations, Religious Studies, Social Work, Sociology, Speech-Language Pathology, Theatre

    Weaknesses to Improve

  • INFP - "The Healer"

    Focused on making the world a better place, INFPs are both idealists and perfectionists. INFPs possess strong value systems, are future-oriented, creative, and highly religious or philosophical individuals. Driven to meet the needs of others, INFPs tend to choose creative or human service-oriented careers that allow them to use their instinctive sense of empathy and remarkable communication skills. INFPs represent 4.4 percent of the U.S. population.

    They most value: Empathy

    They appear to others as: Passionate, Intuitive, Creative

    Characteristics of INFP

    Idealistic, loyal to their values and to people who are important to them. Want to live a life that is congruent with their values. Curious, quick to see possibilities, can be catalysts for implementing ideas. Seek to understand people and to help them fulfill their potential. Adaptable, flexible, and accepting unless a value is threatened. Quiet, Reflective, Strategic, Future Oriented, Empathetic, Cooperative, Loyal, Flexible, Curious, Informal.

    Potential Majors of INFP

    Art, Athletic Training, Biology, Business Administration, Counseling Dietetics, Education, English, Graphic Arts, Management, History, Human Resource Management, Journalism, Landscape Architecture, Medical Technology, Modern Languages, Music, Nursing, Philosophy, Pre-Law, Psychology, Social Work, Sociology, Speech-Language Pathology, Theatre.

    Weaknesses to Improve

  • ENFJ - "The Teacher"

    ENFJs are people-focused individuals, who enjoy creating possibilities to help others with their long-term development. They understand the views of others and possess the communication skills needed in many occupations, especially in teaching and counseling. ENFJs prefer to learn new things and prefer environments that offer variety, problem solving, a focus on the future, and opportunities to be supportive of others and fulfill their humanitarian values. ENFJs make up 2.5 percent of the U.S. population.

    They most value: Collaboration

    They appear to others as: Warm, Supportive, Inclusive

    Characteristics of ENFJ

    Warm, empathetic, responsive, and responsible. Highly attuned to the emotions, needs, and motivations of others. Find potential in everyone, want to help others fulfill their potential. May act as catalysts for individual and group growth. Loyal, responsive to praise and criticism. Sociable, facilitate others in a group, and provide inspiring leadership.

    Potential Majors of ENFJ

    Advertising, Art, Athletic Training, Business Administration, Communication, Counseling Psychology, Criminal Justice and Criminology, Education, English, Entrepreneurial Management, Environmental Design, Graphic Arts, Management, Health Science Hospitality and Food Management, Human Resource Management, Interior Design, Journalism, Marketing, Modern Languages, Music, Nutrition and Dietetics, Political Science, Psychology, Public Relations, Social Work, Sociology, Speech-Language Pathology, Theatre, Urban Planning and Development.

    Weaknesses to Improve

  • INFJ - "The Counselor"

    INFJs have great insight into people and situations. They are creative with deep feelings and strong convictions that guide their lives. Strongly humanitarian in outlook, INFJs tend to be idealists, and they are generally doers as well as dreamers. They often choose careers that allow them to use their inner vision, their ability to establish and maintain harmonious relationships, their creativity, and their strong oral and written communication skills. INFJs make up 1.5 percent of the U.S. population.

    They most value: Creativity

    They appear to others as: Inventive, Idealistic, Insightful

    Characteristics of INFJ

    Seek meaning and connection in ideas, relationships, and material possessions. Want to understand what motivates people and are insightful about others. Conscientious and committed to their firm values. Develop a clear vision about how best to serve the common good. Organized and decisive in implementing their vision.

    Potential Majors of INFJ

    Advertising, Art, Athletic Training, Communication, Counseling, Criminal Justice and Criminology, Dance, Dietetics, Education, English, Exercise Science, Graphic Arts Management, Nutrition and Health Science, History, Human Resource Management, Interior Design, Journalism, Landscape Architecture, Marketing, Medical Technology, Music, Media Production and Industry, Environmental Science, Recreation Leisure Management, Nursing, Health and Physical Education, Pre-Dental, Pre-Law, Pre-Medical, Psychology, Public Relations, Social Work, Sociology, Speech-Language Pathology, Theatre, Urban Planning and Development

    Weaknesses for Improvement

  • ENTP - "The Visionary"

    ENTPs are idea people with a wide range of capabilities and interests. Able to grasp difficult concepts and theories, ENTPs are logical thinkers and creative problem solvers. They are natural leaders capable of inspiring others to buy ideas. They often choose careers that allow them the personal freedom to use their creativity to generate new ideas and solve problems in a casual environment, where rules and restrictions are kept to a minimum. ENTPs make up 3.2 percent of the U.S. population.

    They most value: Knowledge

    They appear to others as: Assertive, Competitive, Resourceful

    Characteristics of ENTP

    Quick, ingenious, stimulating, alert, and outspoken. Resourceful in solving new and challenging problems. Adept at generating conceptual possibilities and then analyzing them strategically. Good at reading other people. Bored by routine, will seldom do the same thing the same way, apt to turn to one new interest after another.

    Potential Majors of ENTP

    Accounting, Biology, Business Administration, Computer Science, Computer Information Systems, Construction Management, Criminal Justice and Criminology, Earth/Space Science, Education, English, Exercise Science, Finance, Geology, Health Science, Industrial Technology, Information Systems, Journalism, Landscape Architecture, Logistics and Supply Chain Management, Medical Technology, Natural Resources and Environmental Management, Nursing, Pre-Dental, Pre-Law, Pre-Medical, Residential Property Management, Risk Management and Insurance

    Weaknesses to Improve

  • INTP - "The Architect"

    INTPs are architects of creative ideas and systems. Preferring theoretical rather than practical applications, INTPs love theory and abstract ideas. They are future-oriented and value truth, knowledge, and competence. INTPs usually prefer working in technical fields that provide the opportunities to apply logic to theories to find solutions and develop innovative approaches and systems. They prefer professionalism in a work environment that encourages freethinking, independence, and improvisation. INTPs make up 3.3 percent of the U.S. population.

    They value most: Ingenuity

    They appear to others as: Conceptual, Analytical, Critical

    Characteristics of INTP

    Quiet, Reflective, Strategic, Future-Oriented, Objective, Rational, Logical, Flexible, Curious, Informal, Seek to develop logical explanations for everything that interests them. Theoretical and abstract, interested more in ideas than in social interaction. Quiet, contained, flexible, and adaptable. Have unusual ability to focus in depth to solve problems in their area of interest. Skeptical, sometimes, critical, always analytical.

    Potential Majors of INTP

    Art, Biochemistry, Biology, Business Administration, Chemistry, Communication, Computer Information Systems, Counseling, Criminal Justice and Criminology, Dance Performance, Economics, Entrepreneurial Management, Environmental Design/Urban Planning, Finance, Graphic Arts Management, History, Journalism, Logistics and Supply Chain Management, Management, Mathematical Economics Mathematical Sciences, Medical Technology, Modern Languages, Music, Natural Resources and Environmental Management, Philosophy, Physics, Pre-Law, Pre-Medical, Psychology, Sociology, Theatre

    Weaknesses to Improve

  • ENTJ - "The Commander"

    ENTJs are natural-born leaders with strong desires to create order within organizations. They make decisions quickly, are very career-focused, and fit well into the corporate world. Since they like to be in charge—and need to be in charge to take advantage of their exceptional leadership skills—ENTJs are usually successful in the business world. Ideally, ENTJs should choose a career that allows them to creatively solve problems and enforce structure. ENTJs represent 1.8 percent of the U.S. population.

    They most value: Command

    They appear to others: as Analytical, Blunt, Planned

    Characteristics of ENTJ

    Frank, decisive, assume leadership readily. Quickly see illogical and inefficient procedures and policies, develop and implement comprehensive systems to solve organizational problems. Enjoy long-term planning and goal setting. Usually well informed, well read, enjoy expanding their knowledge and passing it on to others. Forceful in presenting their ideas.

    Potential Majors of ENTJ

    Accounting, Advertising, Art , Biology, Business Administration Business Information Technology, Chemistry, Computer Information Systems, Construction Management , Criminal Justice and Criminology , Economics (Business), Education (Secondary), Finance, Food Management, Hospitality Management, Human Resource Management , International Business, Journalism, Marketing, Political Science , Pre-Dental , Pre-Law , Pre-Medical , Psychology, Sociology, Theatre

    Weaknesses for Improvement

  • INTJ - "The Mastermind"

    INTJs are strong individuals who seek new ways of looking at things. They are insightful and enjoy coming to new understandings. They often keep to themselves a great deal and are considered the most independent of all the 16 personality types. They are self-confident and prefer to look to the future rather than the past. They are builders of systems and appliers of theoretical models and focus on possibilities. They tend to prefer careers in which they are given a lot of autonomy. INTJs make up 2.1 percent of the U.S. population.

    They most value: Effectiveness

    They appear to others as: Analytical, Tough-Minded, Systematic

    Characteristics of INTJ

    Have original minds and great drive for implementing their ideas and achieving their goals. Quickly see patterns in external events and develop long-range explanatory perspectives. When committed, organize a job and carry it through. Skeptical and independent, have high standards of competence and performance—for themselves and others.

    Potential Majors for INTJ

    Architecture, Art, Biochemistry, Biology, Business Administration, Business Information Technology, Chemistry, Communications, Computer Information Systems, Construction Management, Counseling Criminal Justice and Criminology, Earth Science, Economics, Education, Environmental Design, Exercise Science, Finance, Geology, Graphic Arts Health Science, Human Resource Management, Interior Design, International Business, Journalism, Mathematical Economics, Mathematical Sciences, Mathematics Education,Medical Technology, Music Media Production and Industry, Natural Resources and Environmental Management, Logistics and Supply Chain Management, Physics, Pre-Dental, Pre-Medical, Psychology, Sociology, Urban Planning and Development

    Weaknesses to Improve

  • ESFJ - "The Provider"

    ESFJs are warm, energetic, people persons. They are hard-working, organized, conscientious, and enjoy being part of a cooperative team. ESFJs are driven by a desire to lead and help people in practical ways. They often choose careers where they can observe others’ needs and organize a plan to meet those needs. ESFJs make up 12.3 percent of the U.S. population.

    They most value: Harmony

    They appear to others as: Helpful, Supportive, Practical

    Characteristics of ESFJ

    Warmhearted, conscientious, and cooperative. Want harmony in their environment, work with determination to establish it. Like to work with others to complete tasks accurately and on time. Loyal, follow through even in small matters. Notice what others need in their day-to-day lives and try to provide it. Want to be appreciated for who they are and what they contribute.

    Potential Majors for ESFJ

    Accounting, Athletic Training, Business Administration, Chemistry, Counseling Psychology, Criminal Justice and Criminology, Dietetics, Education, Exercise Science, Finance, Health Science, Hospitality Management, Logistics and Supply Chain Management, Marketing, Medical Technology, Modern Languages, Natural Resources and Environmental Management, Nursing, Physical Education, Pre-Dental, Pre-Law, Pre-Medical, Psychology, Public Relations, Social Work, Speech-Language Pathology, Theatre

    Weaknesses to Improve

  • ESTJ - "The Supervisor"

    ESTJs focus on facts and concrete needs. They are analytical, conscientious, decisive, direct, efficient, responsible, and fact-minded individuals. ESTJs thrive in an environment built on order and continuity with explicit rules, expectations, and standards to follow. Leadership roles come easily for the ESTJ personality type, and they enjoy results-oriented work of a practical nature. ESTJs represent approximately 8.7 percent of the U.S. population.

    They most value: Organization

    They appear to others as: Methodical, Focused, Planned

    Characteristics of ESTJ

    Energizing, Communicative, Open, Practical, Action-Oriented, Objective, Rational, Logical, Decisive, Sticks to Plans, Rigid, Dependable Self-confident Hard-working, Traditional, Strong leadership skills, realistic, matter-of-fact, quickly move to implement decisions. Organize projects and people to get things done, focus on getting results in the most efficient way possible. Take care of routine details. Have a clear set of logical standards, systematically follow them and want others to also. Forceful in implementing their plans.

    Potential Majors for ESTJ

    Accounting, Actuarial Science, Athletic Training, Business Administration, Business Information Technology, Construction Management, Criminal Justice and Criminology, Finance, Food Management, Hospitality Management, Industrial Technology, Legal Studies, Mechanical Engineering Technology, Music Media Production and Industry, Political Science, Pre-Dental, Pre-Medical, Public Relations, Secondary Education, Social Work

    Weaknesses to Improve

  • ISFJ - "The Protector"

    ISFJs, above all, desire to serve others. They are warm, kindhearted individuals, who bring an aura of quiet warmth, caring, and dependability to all that they do. They are hard-working and conscientious individuals prone to be quiet and serious. ISFJs tend to choose careers in which they can use their exceptional people-observation skills to determine what people want or need and then use their exceptional organizational abilities to create a structured plan to fulfill the need. Their excellent sense of space and function combined with their awareness of aesthetic quality also gives them special abilities in practical artistic endeavors, such as interior and fashion design. ISFJs make up 13.8 percent of the U.S. population.

    They most value: Consideration

    They appear to others as: Cooperative, Committed, Understanding

    Characteristics of ISFJ

    Reliable, Practical, Sensitive, Eye for detail, Quiet, Reflective, Practical, Action-Oriented, Empathetic, Cooperative, Loyal, Decisive, Sticks to Plans, Rigid, Quiet, friendly, responsible, and conscientious. Committed and steady in meeting their obligations. Thorough, painstaking, and accurate. considerate, notice and remember specifics about people who are important to them, concerned with how others feel. Strive to create an orderly and harmonious environment at work and at home.

    Majors for ISFJ

    Art, Biochemistry, Biology, Business Administration, Business Information Technology, Chemistry, Communications, Computer Information Systems, Counseling Psychology, Criminal Justice and Criminology, Dance Performance, Economics, Entrepreneurial Management, Environmental Design/Urban Planning, Finance, Graphic Arts, History, Information Systems, Hospitality Management, Interior Design, Medical Technology, Music, Natural Resources and Environmental Management, Nursing, Pre-Dental, Pre-Law, Pre-Medical, Psychology, Social Work, Speech-Language Pathology

    Weaknesses to Improve

  • ISTJ - "The Inspector"

    ISTJs are dependable and perseverant. They are quiet, serious, responsible, loyal individuals, who believe in time-honored laws and traditions. They possess a deep desire to promote security and peaceful living. Usually preferring to work alone, ISTJs do best in careers in which they can use their organizational skills and powers of concentration to create order and structure and therefore fit well into management positions. ISTJs represent approximately 11.6 percent of the U.S. population.

    They most value: Productivity

    They appear to others as: Persistent, Logical, Practical

    Characteristics of ISTJ

    Quiet, serious, succeed by being thorough and dependable. Practical, matter-of-fact, realistic, and responsible. Decide logically what should be done and work toward it steadily, regardless of distractions. Take pleasure in making everything orderly and organized—their work, their home, their life. Value traditions and loyalty.

    Potential Majors of ISTJ

    Accounting, Architecture, Biology, Business Administration, Computer Science, Computer Information Systems, Construction Management, Criminal Justice and Criminology, Earth Science, Education, English, Exercise Science, Finance, Geology, Health Science, Industrial Technology, Information Systems, Journalism, , Logistics and Supply Chain Management, Medical Technology, Natural Resources and Environmental Management, Nursing, Pre-Dental, Pre-Law, Pre-Medical, Risk Management and Insurance

    Weaknesses to Improve

  • ESFP - "The Performer"

    ESFPs thrive on new experiences and having a lot of contact with people. Possessing strong people skills, they tend to choose careers that allow them to help people in practical ways and often find themselves in the role of peacemaker. ESFPs enjoy work that is independent, resourceful, and allows them to have plenty of hands-on involvement and see the results of their efforts. They are great communicators, collaborators, and team players. ESFPs make up 8.5 percent of the U.S. population.

    They most value: Realism

    They appear to others as: Energetic, Inquisitive, Encouraging

    Characteristics of ESFP

    Outgoing, friendly, and accepting. Exuberant lovers of life, people, and material comforts. Enjoy working with others to make things happen. Bring common sense and a realistic approach to their work, and make work fun. Flexible and spontaneous, adapt readily to new people and environments. Learn best by trying a new skill with other people.

    Potential Majors for ESFP

    Art, Athletic Training, Counseling Psychology, Criminal Justice and Criminology, Dance Performance, Dietetics, Education, Exercise Science, Geology, Health Science, Hospitality Management, Human Resource Management, Interior Design, Logistics and Supply Chain Management, Music, Natural Resources and Environmental Management, Nursing, Physical Education, Political Science, Pre-Dental, Pre-Law, Pre-Medical, Psychology, Public Relations, Social Work, Sociology, Speech-Language Pathology, Theatre

    Weaknesses to Improve

  • ESTP - "The Promoter"

    ESTPs are outgoing, enthusiastic doers, who live in a world of action. They have excellent people skills and the ability to quickly size up a situation and act accordingly. They have a special ability to react quickly in an emergency or crisis situation. ESTPs tend to choose careers that allow a lot of interaction with people in a fast-paced environment and do not require a lot of routine, detailed tasks. ESTPs are excellent sales people. ESTPs represent 4.3 percent of the U.S. population.

    They most value: Competition

    They appear to others as: Active, Pragmatic, Incisive, Demanding

    Characteristics of ESTP

    Flexible and tolerant, take a pragmatic approach focused on immediate results. Bored by theories and conceptual explanations; want to act energetically to solve the problem. Focus on the here and now, spontaneous, enjoy each moment that they can be active with others. Enjoy material comforts and style. Learn best through doing.

    Potential Majors for ESTP

    Art, Athletic Training, Biology, Computer Science, Computer Information Systems, Construction Management, Criminal Justice and Criminology, Dance Performance, Education (Industrial/Technical Areas), Entrepreneurial Management, Exercise Science, Finance, Information Systems, Journalism, Landscape Architecture, Marketing, Mechanical Engineering Technology, Medical Technology, Music, Natural Resources and Environmental Management, Pre-Medical, Residential Property Management, Theatre

    Weaknesses to Improve

  • ISTP - "The Crafter"

    With a compelling drive to understand how and why things work, ISTPs are action-oriented doers focused on the present. They are practical, realistic, and possess an excellent ability to apply logic and reason. They are masters of tools from the microscopic drill to the supersonic jet, and they are happiest in careers that allow them to use technical skills and tools to problem solve, troubleshoot, or manage a crisis. As leaders, ISTPs are usually up-front leading the charge. ISTPs make up 5.4 percent of the U.S. population.

    They most value: Efficiency

    They appear to others as: Active, Capable, Concrete, Proficient

    Characteristics of ISTP

    Tolerant and flexible, quiet observers until a problem appears, then act quickly to find workable solutions. Analyze what makes things work and readily get through large amounts of data to isolate the core of practical problems. Interested in cause and effect, organize facts using logical principles, value efficiency.

    Potential Majors for ISTP

    Art, Athletic Training, Biology, Business Administration, Business Information Technology, Computer Information Systems, Computer Science, Construction Management, Criminal Justice and Criminology, Economics, Exercise Science, Finance, Geology, Health Science, Industrial Technology, Landscape Architecture, Logistics and Supply Chain Management, Manufacturing Engineering Technology, Mechanical Engineering Technology, Mathematical Sciences, Medical Technology, Natural Resources and Environmental Management, Physical Education, Pre-Dental, Pre-Law, Pre-Medical, Theatre

    Weaknesses to Improve

Contact Us

The Department of Academic Enrichment and Learning (DAEL) provides the diverse student population of ESU with support, opportunities and academic programs to enhance engagement; to support transition to the university; to encourage life-long learning; and to foster academic achievement and degree completion.

Contact Information

Campus Address
Rosenkrans East
Phone:
(570) 422-3164
Fax:
(570) 422-3898 (Fax)
Title of Department Leader
Assistant Professor/Department Chair
Name
Kelly L. McKenzie
Phone:
(570) 422-3741