Biol 315,  Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy

Syllabus, 2006

Instructor:      Dr. Thomas C. LaDuke                                  Office Hours: Mon: 1-3
Office:             Moore 128                                                                                 Wed:  1-3
Phone:            422-3520                                                                                   Thu:  2-3
e-mail:            tcladuke@po-box.esu.edu


Required textbook: Leim, et. al. 2001. Functional Anatomy of the Vertebrates,
            Third Ed. Thompson. 703 pp.

Course Description: This class explores the anatomical similarities and differences among the
vertebrate classes, while explaining the evolutionary development of current anatomical diversity. 
Biomechanics and functional design of vertebrates are also considered.  In the laboratory,
a series of representative vertebrates is dissected in order to familiarize students with the specific
components of the various systems and to provide experience in dissection.

Objectives:
1)     Students will learn basic concepts of evolution and classification as applied to vertebrates.
2)    
Students will examine theories about the evolutionary origins and relationships of chordates.
3)    
Students will learn about the basic stages involved in vertebrate development.
4)    
Students will learn the components of, and diversity of form of the following systems:
      a)    
integument, b) skeletal, c) muscular, d) digestive, e) respiratory, f) circulatory, g) urinary,
      h) reproductive, I) endocrine, j) nervous, and k) sensory
5) Students will learn about the functional morphology of locomotion and feeding in
            representative vertebrates.

Policies.  Attendance of each lecture and laboratory class is required.  If a class
is missed due to an emergency, I expect to be informed of the cause. Students
are responsible for all lecture materials whether they attended class or not.  Any
lecturenotes that you have missed should be obtained from a classmate. 

Students will have opportunities to ask questions in class, but extensive
questions about course material, grades, or exams should be brought to office
hours. 

Exams must be taken on the scheduled date.  Write these dates on your
calendar.   Makeup exams will only be given to students who provide documented
evidence of a family or health emergency, and may be of a different format from
the regularly scheduled exam.  Makeup exams will be given at a time of the
instructor’s choosing.

If you have a documented learning disability, you may be entitled to certain considerations, such as extra time during the exams.  You must see me prior to the exam date to make the appropriate arrangements.

Grades.  Grades are based on a combination of lecture examination scores
and a laboratory grade.  The lecture grade constitutes 60% of your final grade,
the lab constitutes 40%.  There will be three lecture exams, each worth 20%
of your final grade.


Lecture Schedule:

Changes coming soon.

Lecture Topic Reading
1
What is comparative anatomy? Evolution, homology Ch. 1, 1-20
2
Systematics and paleontology Ch. 1, 20-43
3
The protochordates 
Ch. 2
4
Protochordates continued
5
 The diversity of vertebrates Ch. 3
6
Development Ch. 5: 159-170, 187-205
7
The integument Ch. 6: 208-223
8
Integumentary derivatives
Ch. 6: 223-230
9
Bone, structure, development.  Begin Skull Ch. 7
10
The skull
Ch. 7
11
The visceral skeleton Ch. 7
12
 Postcranial axial skeleton Ch. 8
13
Appendicular skeleton Ch. 9
14
Exam 1

15
Muscle
Ch 10
16
Biomechanics and allometry
Ch. 4
17
Locomotion: terrestrial

18
Locomotion: adaptations to fossoriality
19
Locomotion: swimming and flight
20
Feeding
21
Digestive system: mouth and pharynx Ch. 13
22
Digestive system: visceral Ch. 13
23
Digestive specializations Ch. 13
24
Respiratory system: aquatic respiration Ch. 11
25
Respiratory system: aerial resp. Ch. 11
26
Respiratory specializations
Ch. 11
27
Exam 2

28
Circulatory system: the Blood and blood vessels Ch. 12
29
Circulatory system: the heart Ch. 12
30
Circulatory system: circulatory specializations Ch. 12
31
The urinary system Ch. 14:511-528
32
Reproductive system (Male)
Ch. 14:529-530, 537-546
33
Reproductive system (Female) Ch. 14:532-537, 553-554
34
The endocrine system (endocrine organs)
Ch. 15
35
The nervous system  
Ch. 16
36
The brain
Ch. 16
37
Chemoreceptors
Ch. 17:654-664
38
The mechanoreceptors and electroreceptors Ch. 17:675-695
39
The ear
Ch. 17:675-695
40
The ear continued Ch. 17:675-695
41
The eye and other radiation receptors Ch. 17:664-675
42
The eye continued Ch. 17:664-675
43
Final Exam, 11AM to 1 PM


Laboratory

The laboratory is an integral part of the comparative anatomy class.  Its importance is reflected in its
relative contribution to your final grade.  In this portion of the class, students will learn the parts
of the various systems through observation of specimens and through dissection.  A dissection kit
 will be required beginning on the fifth week.  A lab coat is recommended.

Required laboratory text: Fishbeck and Sebastiani, 2001. Comparative Anatomy:
Manual of Vertebrate Dissection. Morton Publishing Company, Englewood, CO.  358 pp.

Laboratory Schedule                                          

Date
Lab
Topic
Text reference
8-28 1
Protochordates, Lamprey Ch. 1-4
9- 4 2
Vertebrate diversity, Integument,  begin skull
Chapters 5, 14, & 23
9-11 3
Skull, continued
Ch.  6:55-61, 15:143 -147, & 24:209-216
9-18
4
Postcranial skeleton Ch. 6:62-66, 15:147 -150, & 24:216-226
9-25
5
Practical Exam I

10-2
6
Muscles of the shark Ch. 7
10-9
7
Muscles of the mudpuppyBegin cat dissection Ch. 16, 25
10-16
8
Muscles of the cat (continued)
Ch. 25
10-23
9
Muscles of the cat (continued)
Ch. 25
10-30
10
Practical Exam II
11-6
11
Digestive, respiratory and urogenital systems Ch. 8-10, 17-19, 26-28
11-13
12
Circulatory system (Shark & cat) Chapters 11 and 29
11-20
13
Nervous system  (Shark & cat)
Chapters 12 and 30
12-4
14
Practical Exam III

              

Laboratory Policies:

            Students are responsible for lab bench cleanup and proper care and maintenance of lab
specimens and equipment.  Dissection specimens are preserved in varying combinations of formalin,
phenol, and other noxious compounds.  Avoid directly inhaling fumes and do not allow concentrated
fumes to contact your eyes, especially if you wear contact lenses.  Contact lens wearers are
advised to wear glasses on laboratory days.  Dissection gloves will be provided. Safe use of dissection
tools will be demonstrated and is thereafter the responsibility of the student.

Grades:

Lecture Exam I….20% Lab Practical I…..10%
Lecture Exam II..20% Lab Practical II….10%
Final Exam…….….20% Lab Practical III…10%

Dissection.........10%
Total...……....…..60%
….............………..40%


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