Know the anatomical structure of a typical mammalian tooth.
Know tooth development
Know how a mammalian dental formula works. Know the primitive metatherian and eutherian formulae and some other examples.
|Deciduous dentition||Carnassial dentition|
How are they similar?
O2 & CO2 must pass through thin, cellular membrane by diffusion
Gasses move passively across barrier following their diffusion gradient
A muscular pump is necessary to move respiratory medium (air or water)
What are pouched gills? Septal gills? Opercular
gills? Where are they found?
How are external gills of amphibians different?
What are countercurrent and crosscurrent exchange? How do they work to improve the efficiency of transfer of gasses by diffusion?
Know the two-stroke cycle of the dual pump mechanism for the buccal pump and opercular
How do lamprey, hagfish, sturgeon and stingray improvise the inflow of water when the oral
opening is blocked?
Where do lungs originally appear (in what species?) Why were they needed?
What is a swim bladder? How is it related to lungs?
Know the different accessory air breathing organs in modern fish species. Be able to cite
example of species in which these mechanisms have evolved.
Know the two types of buccal pump mechanisms
by aquatic vertebrates when
breathing air: 2 cycle and 4 cycle.
How do these differ from the buccal pump mechanism used by mature amphibians, s.a.
Know the basic structure of the lungs of frogs, reptiles, birds and mammals.
How is the skin used in respiration?
In amphibians? Plethodontid salamanders? Bats? Hellbenders? Lake Titicaca frog?
How does an aspiration pump lung differ from
that rely on a buccal pump?
What are some differences in the mechanism of aspiration in squamates, crocodilians,
Know the avian system of respiration. How does it differ from that of mammals?
|Respiratory tube||Swim bladder||Air capillaries|
|Opercular pump||Air sacs||diaphragm|
What type of cells are present in the nervous system?
Know the basic anatomy and function of a neuron.
Know the basic organization of the nervous
1. Central nervous system: includes a) brain, b) spinal cord
2. Peripheral nervous system: includes a) cranial nerves, b) spinal nerves, c) autonomic n.s.
What is a reflex arc?
What are white and gray matter? How are they arranged in the brain? The spinal cord?
Know basic arrangement of spinal nerves, meninges, cranial nerves. Know anatomy of
spinal cord in section.
Know the names and roman numeral designations of the cranial nerves and the basic
structures they innervate.
Know whether a cranial nerve is sensory or motor. Which are special sensory?
Follow the evolutionary changes that occur in the routing of somatic and visceral sensory
and motor fibers in the spinal nerves of the major vertebrate groups.
Know the components of the autonomic nervous
system and how it works.
How are these similar and how do they differ?
|Sensory neuron||ventral root||dorsal ramus|
|Motor neuron||association neuron||ventral ramus|
|Dorsal root ganglion||gray ramus communicans|
|Dorsal root||white ramus communicans|
development and basic divisions:
Prosencephalon Diencephalon Telencephalon
Know the structures of the adult brain that each of the above regions gives rise to, including:
Cerebellum Cerebral peduncles Tegmentum
Olfactory bulbs Pons Reticular formation
Thalamus Medulla oblongata
Epithalamus Pineal gland
Know the structure of each of these and basic functions.