Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy
Final Exam Review Sheet

Know the anatomical structure of a typical mammalian tooth.
Know tooth development
Know how a mammalian dental formula works.  Know the primitive metatherian and eutherian formulae and some other examples.


Homodonty Hypsodonty Diastema
Heterodonty Bunodonty Thecodont
Polyphyodonty Selenodonty Acrodont
Diphyodonty Lophodonty Pleurodont
Deciduous dentition Carnassial dentition

Respiratory System
Know the functions of the respiratory system.
Understand level of respiration: 1) External  2) Internal
How does respiration via gills differ from that through lungs?
       Water is denser than air, more E req to move it
       Oxygen less soluble in water than air
       Amt. Oxygen in water is temp dependent (how?)
       Gills require unidirectional flow for max efficiency,
       Lungs function well enough with bidirectional flow

How are they similar?
      O2  & CO2 must pass through thin, cellular membrane by diffusion
      Gasses move passively across barrier following their diffusion gradient
      A muscular pump is necessary to move respiratory medium (air or water)

What are pouched gills? Septal gills? Opercular gills?  Where are they found?
How are external gills of amphibians different?
What are countercurrent and crosscurrent exchange?  How do they work to improve the efficiency of transfer of gasses by diffusion?

Know the two-stroke cycle of the dual pump mechanism for the buccal pump and opercular
How do lamprey, hagfish, sturgeon and stingray improvise the inflow of water when the oral
    opening is blocked?
Where do lungs originally appear (in what species?)  Why were they needed?
What is a swim bladder?  How is it related to lungs?
Know the different accessory air breathing organs in modern fish species.  Be able to cite
    example of species in which these mechanisms have evolved.

Know the two types of buccal pump mechanisms used by aquatic vertebrates when
    breathing air: 2 cycle and 4 cycle.
How do these differ from the buccal pump mechanism used by mature amphibians, s.a.
Know the basic structure of the lungs of frogs,  reptiles, birds and mammals.

How is the skin used in respiration?
In amphibians? Plethodontid salamanders? Bats? Hellbenders?  Lake Titicaca frog?

How does an aspiration pump lung differ from those that rely on a buccal pump?
What are some differences in the mechanism of aspiration in squamates, crocodilians,
    mammals, birds?

Know the avian system of respiration.  How does it differ from that of mammals?

Gills Gill curtain Parabronchi
Respiratory tube Swim bladder Air capillaries
Hemibranch Physostomous alveoli
Holobranch Physoclistous bronchi
Buccal pump Squalene bronchioles
Opercular pump Air sacs diaphragm

 Nervous System.
What type of cells are present in the nervous system?
Know the basic anatomy and function of a neuron.

Know the basic organization of the nervous system:
1. Central nervous system: includes a) brain, b) spinal cord
2. Peripheral nervous system: includes a) cranial nerves, b) spinal nerves, c) autonomic n.s.

What is a reflex arc?
What are white and gray matter? How are they arranged in the brain? The spinal cord?
Know basic arrangement of spinal nerves, meninges, cranial nerves. Know anatomy of
    spinal cord in section.
Know the names and roman numeral designations of the cranial nerves and the basic
    structures they innervate.
Know whether a cranial nerve is sensory or motor.  Which are special sensory?
Follow the evolutionary changes that occur in the routing of somatic and visceral sensory
    and motor fibers in the spinal nerves of the major vertebrate groups.

Know the components of the autonomic nervous system and how it works.
Sympathetic divsion
Parasympathetic division
How are these similar and how do they differ?


Sensory neuron ventral root dorsal ramus
Motor neuron association neuron ventral ramus
Dorsal root ganglion gray ramus communicans
Dorsal root white ramus communicans

The Brain

Know development and basic divisions:
Prosencephalon                     Diencephalon                         Telencephalon
Mesencephalon                      Metencephalon
Rhombencephalon                 Myelencephalon

 Know the structures of the adult brain that each of the above regions gives rise to, including:

Cerebrum                    Hypothalamus                        Tectum
Cerebellum                 Cerebral peduncles                Tegmentum
Olfactory bulbs            Pons                                        Reticular formation
Thalamus                    Medulla oblongata
Epithalamus                Pineal gland
Know the structure of each of these and basic functions.