This review sheet
contains most of the information covered in lecture prior to the first
exam. It is
meant to serve as a guide, and is not a comprehensive, all inclusive listing.
Anatomy is the
study of the form of the body.
Comparative anatomy is the study of differences in form between the various vertebrate
groups, as well as how and why those differences came about.
Evolution is the central, guiding principle in modern biology.
Charles Darwin wrote: "On the Origin of Species..."
This book demonstrate that evolution occurs and proposed a mechanism by which it must operate:
Know how natural
Know the definition of adaptation.
Know the two species concepts: Biological Species Concept and
Evolutionary species concept. Who was the author of each?
What are the differences between microevolution and macroevolution?
Know the following terms and be able to use them in a sentence:
Know what allows adaptive radiations to occur and be able to cite some
Know some examples that demonstrate homology
What is a character?
the following terms:
What are the
differences between the traditional classification of
vertebrates and the
modern, phylogenetic scheme?
Know the geological time scale and how the remains of an organism become fossilized.
the main characteristics, and some examples of the following taxa:
“Agnatha” Tetrapoda Lepidosauria
Conodonta Temnospondyla Squamata
Myxini Lissamphibia Aves
Pteraspidomorpha Urodela Monotremata
Cephalaspidomorpha Salientia Metatheria
Gnathostomata Gymnophiona Eutheria
Placodermi Amniota Pelycosauria
Acanthodii Reptilia Therapsida
What are the 4
defining features of the Phylum Chordata?
2. Dorsal, hollow, nerve cord
3. Pharyngeal gill slits
4. Postanal tail
the major protochordate groups:
Which of these is not a chordate group?
Why are the Chordates united with the echinoderms and Hemichordata into the
What are the differences between these and the Protostomia?
What are the Enteropneusta? The Pterobranchia? The Ascidiacea?
The Thaliacea? The Larvacea?
Proboscis peripharyngeal bands
Collar dorsal lamina
Blastopore tadpole larva
Cleavage adhesive papilla
Auricularia (or tornaria) otolith
Cilia buccal chamber
Tunic oral cirri
Tunicin Hatschek’s pit
Endostyle epibranchial groove
mid-gut caecum Anterior and posterior cardinal veins
sinus venosus Common cardinal veins
the various hypotheses on the evolution of the vertebrates from
and especially, the significance of the larval forms of each group mentioned.
Microlecithal Cleavage types:
Know how the stratum corneum of the epidermis forms.
the characteristics of the integument in each of the major
vertebrate groups: fish,
amphibian, reptile, bird, mammal. How is each group different from the others?
Know the types of skin glands.
Know the types of dermal bones and scales
Know the types of chromatophores
Know the types of epidermal derivatives
Know the structure of a hair
Know the structure of a feather
Know the following terms:
Keratin mucous cuticle
Warp & weft Scale
Stratum basale (= s. germinativum)
The Skeletal System.
1. Support 4. Mineral sink
2. Protection 5. Hemopoiesis
3. Movement/locomotion 6. Energy storage: fat deposition
tissues: large amount of matrix, relatively few cells.
Cartilage: chondrocytes found in lacunae. Matrix includes chondroitan sulfate.
Hyaline cartilage - glassy, few, parallel collagen fibers in matrix.
Fibrocartilage - dense, white, opaque collagen fibers in matrix.
Elastic cartilage - primarily elastic fibers in matrix.
Chondroid tissue - found only in larval lampreys and some sharks
Calcified cartilage: cartilage impregnated with calcium salts, found in large sharks.
Growth of cartilage:
Interstitial - internal cells divide in lacunae. Matrix deposited internally.
Appositional growth - chondroblasts deposit new cartilage at surface just beneath
Cells - osteocytes: found in lacunae within bony matrix.
Osteoblasts: found beneath perichondrium, where they can deposit new bone at
Osteoclasts: responsible for dissolving bone.
of bone contains crystaline calcium salts called hydroxyapatite.
Mineral involved is calcium phosphate.
classes of bony tissue: spongy bone and compact bone.
Compact bone is arranged into osteons or haversian systems:
Haversian canal is surrounded by lamellae of matrix.
along the boundaries of the lamellae. Lacunae
osteocytes, interconnected through canaliculi.
arranged into trabeculae. Lamellae absent, although
arranged along lines of stress.
Spaces within spongy bone filled with red marrow, location of hemopoiesis.
Yellow marrow occurs in marrow cavity of diaphysis.
Structure of a long bone:
Diaphysis - shaft
(derived from primary ossification center).
Epiphysis - cap-like ends of bone (derived from secondary ossification centers).
Metaphysis - epiphyseal plate (=growth plate).
Articular cartilage - hyaline cartilage covering articular surfaces.
Periostium - white, fibrous connective tissue covering on non-articular surfaces
of bone. Anchored by Sharpey's fibers.
Medullary cavity - space within diaphysis, contains yellow marrow.
Endosteum - internal membranous layer covering inner surface of bone.
Osteogenesis: bone formation.
(=membrane bone) ossifies directly in connective tissue
by deposition of trabeculae.
Endochondral bone - bone that is preformed in cartilage, which is replaced by bone during
osteogenesis in a longbone:
1) periostial collar ossifies
2) primary ossification center ossifies in diaphysis
3) secondary ossification center ossifies to form epiphyses
Growth of a long
bone occurs at Metaphysis as cartilage growth at one
end of plate is followed
by ossification at the other end of plate.
occurs when osteoclasts dissolve away bone at one
location, while osteoblasts
are laying down bone at another location. Results in shape change.
Distribution of bone types:
Dermal bone - Scales of fishes, osteoderms, turtle shell, external skull bones, clavicle and interclavicle.
Endochondral bone - chondrocranium and derivatives, vertebrae, ribs, appendicular skeleton
(except clavicle and interclavicle).
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