Outline of the Skeletal System

I. Functions
            A. Support
            B. Protection of soft tissues
            C. Transmission of forces
            D. Hemopoiesis
            E. Mineral sink
            F. Detoxification
            G. Energy storage

II. Classification of skeletal parts
            A. Topology of skeleton
            B. Shape
                        1. Long bones
                        2. Short bones
                        3. Flat bones
                        4. Irregular bones

 III. Bone Structure
            A. Spongy vs. compact bone
            B. Diaphysis
            C. Epiphyses
            D. Epiphyseal plate
            E. Articular cartilage
            F. Periostium and endosteum
            G. Medullary cavity

 IV. Bone Cells
            A. Osteocytes
            B. Osteoblasts
            C. Osteoclasts
            D. Micro-anatomy
                        1. Osteon
                        2. Lacunae
                        3. Lamellae
                       4. Other structures

 V. Bone Development
            A. Cartilage model
            B. Periostial collar
            C. Primary ossification centers
            D. Secondary ossification centers
            E. Epiphyseal plate

 VI. Bone growth
            A. Epiphyseal plate structure
            B. Remodeling

 VII. Bone breakage
            A. Severity of break
                        1. Closed or simple fracture
                        2. Open or compound fracture
                        3. Complete fracture
                        4. Incomplete fracture
            B. Form of fracture
                        1. Greenstick
                        2. Comminuted
                        3. Linear
                        4. Transverse
                       
5. Oblique
                        6. Spiral
                        7. Compression
                        8. Pott’s fracture
                       
9. Colle’s fracture
                       10. Epiphyseal fracture
          
             C. Healing process
                        1. Fracture hematoma formation
                        2. Granulation tissue
                        3. Soft (Fibrocartilaginous) callus formation
                        4. Bony callus formation
                                    a. External callus
                                    b. Internal callus
                        5. Remodeling

VIII. Bone physiology
            A. Calcium levels
                        1. Hypocalcemia
                        2. Hypercalcemia
            B. Hormonal control
                        1. Calcitriol
                        2. Calcitonin
                        3. Parathyroid hormone


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