Human Anatomy and Physiology I
Review Sheet for Final Exam

          The final exam  will take place on Thursday, May  6 at  5:00 PM.  It will be a comprehensive exam
 of approximately 100 questions.  You will have two hours to complete the exam.  Two thirds of it will cover
new material summarized below.  One third will cover old material that can be found summarized on the previous study guides.  Please remember to bring #2 pencils.


            The Brain.

Know the general components of the adult brain: Meninges, ventricles, cerebrospinous
fluid, cerebrum, cerebellum, diencephalon, brainstem: midbrain, pons, and medulla
oblongata.

Know the developmental processes involved in brain development, and the names of the

various regions of the embryonic brain:
Prosencephalon                     Telencephalon
                                                Diencephalon
Mesencephalon                      Mesencephalon
Rhombencephalon                Metencephalon
                                                Myelencephalon

Which parts of the adult brain are derived from each part of the embryonic brain?
 Know: Brain waves, electroencephalongram.

Know the parts of the cerebrum and their function:
            Frontal lobes                           Temporal lobes

            Parietal lobes                          Insula

            Occipital lobes

            What are gyri and sulci?

Know the following terms:
Motor speech area                 basal nucleus                        Olfactory bulbs          
Precentral gyrus                    association fibers                   Piriform lobes          
Parietal lobe                           commissural fibers               
Postcentral gyrus                  projection fibers                     
                                               
Know the following terms:
Pineal gland                            Epithalamus               Pituitary gland
Adenohypophysis                   Thalamus                   Neurohypophysis
Hypothalamus                         Limbic system
 
Know the functions of the hypothalamus as discussed in lecture ( 8 functions).
Know the functions of the limbic system.
 
Midbrain: Corpora quadrigemini: superior colliculi, inferior colliculi.  Know functions.
            Cerebral peduncles
 
Pons: has apneustic and pneumotaxic nuclei.
 
Medulla oblongata: pyramids, olives, and the following nuclei:
Cardiac center, Vasomotor center, respiratory center.
 
What is the reticular formation? The reticular activating system?
Know the cerebellum, its parts and their functions. 

Meninges

1.      Dura mater
2.      Arachnoid
3.      Pia mater

Know superior sagittal sinus, Subarachnoid space, cerebrospinous fluid, meningitis.
Know the lateral ventricles, foramina of Monroe, third ventricle, cerebral aqueducts, fourth
     ventricle, and choroid plexus.
 Know the route followed by the cerebrospinous fluid.  What are the arachnoid villi?

Know the 12 cranial nerves by number, name, and whether they are Sensory, Motor or
Both?  Which body part is innervated?  Where does each originate in the brain.

I            Olfactory                    S
II           Optic                           S

III          Occulomotor              M

IV          Trochlear                   M

V          Trigeminal                  B

VI          Abducens                  M

VII         Facial                         B

VIII        Vestibulocochlear      S

IX         Glossopharyngeal      B

X          Vagus                         B

XI         Accessory                  M

XII        Hypoglossal            M


The Autonomic Nervous System.

The autonomic nervous system includes a series of motor nerve pathways that supply the viscera.
The Autonomic Nervous System consists of two components:
The Sympathetic Nervous System, and the Parasympathetic Nervous System.

The Sympathetic Division.

The sympathetic nervous system  produces stimulatory effects on body parts that participate in the “fight
or flight” response.

This system also generally produces inhibitory effects on the body systems involved with the “resting and
digesting” response.

The “fight-or-flight” response involves: vasodilation of vasculature to skeletal muscles,
bronchodilation, pupillary dilation and stimulation of sweat glands.
The “fight-or-flight” response also results in: decreased blood supply to digestive
organs, decreased production of digestive enzymes, decreased blood flow to the skin, etc.

The parasympathetic nervous system has the opposite effect on all of these systems.

Autonomic nerve pathways involve two successive neurons: the preganglionic and the postganglionic;
    and a ganglion.

The sympathetic nervous system emanates from thoracic and lumbar regions of the spinal cord
    (thoracolumbar). 
The preganglionic neuron is usually short, the postganglionic fiber long.

In the sympathetic division, most of the ganglia are located alongside the vertebral column and are interconnected with one another, hence the name: sympathetic chain ganglia.

Preganglionic fibers enter the sympathetic chain ganglia via the white ramus communicans,
Some postganglionic fibers reenter the spinal nerve pathway via the gray ramus communicans.
Some preganglionic sympathetic fibers (called splanchnic nerves) pass through the chain ganglia to synapse in collateral ganglia.

The Parasympathetic Division

In the parasympathetic nervous system the nerves emanate from the cranial region and the sacral
region, hence this division of the Autonomic nervous system is often called the craniosacral
division. 

Parasympathetic preganglionic fibers are long, and the ganglion is usually near or in the effector organ. 
The postganglionic fiber is very short.

Parasympathetic nerve fibers exit from the brain in cranial nerves III, VII, IX, and X.
Know the role played by the adrenal gland in the sympathetic nervous system.

Autonomic neurotransmitters:
Epinephrine, norepinephrine (=adrenalin and noradrenalin).  Also: acetylcholine is produced by preganglionic
fibers (cholinergic).  Postganglionic fibers generally produce norepinephrine (adrenergic).

The Senses
General senses can be relatively simple, widespread senses such as touch, pressure, pain, temperature
   change, etc.
 
Special senses involve complex receptor organs that are sensitive to minor changes in various types of
   energy emanating from environmental sources.
 
Somatic senses are those that come in from the outer parts of the body, including skin, skeletal
   muscles, and special sense organs.  (usually called exteroceptors)
 
Visceral senses are those that come directly from internal viscera. (usually called visceroceptors)
Proprioceptors receive information about the position of body parts from stretch receptors in muscle
and tendon.
 
Know the following touch receptors:
Meissner’s corpuscles                  Pacinian corpuscles
Bulb of Krause                               Root hair plexus
Ruffini’s Corpuscles                      Pain receptors (=nociceptors)

Know the following proprioceptors:
Joint kinesthetic receptors                     Neurotendinous receptors (Golgi tendon organs)
Muscle spindles                                     Sensory hair cells
Know: Referred pain,  Phantom pain

Chemoreception.

Chemoreceptors are sensory organs that are sensitive to different chemical substances.
Based on hair cell mechanism.
Two types: Olfactory and gustatory.

Olfaction, the sense of smell – Sensory hair-cells are located in the upper portions of the nasal
    epithelium, supported by support cells and bathed in mucous.

Olfactory sensory cells have receptor proteins on cilia (hair of hair cells), these react with only one type of
    odor molecule, setting up an action potential.

 
Axons of the sensory neurons converge at cribriform plate and pass through cribriform foramina as
    olfactory nerves (cranial nerve I).

 
Sensory input is conducted to olfactory bulb, then along olfactory tract to temporal lobe of brain.

Gustation
: the sense of taste.
 
The organs of taste are called taste buds.
These are usually located on lingual papillae.
 
There are three basic types of lingual papillae:
Filiform - long and thin, no taste buds
Fungiform - mushroom-shaped, bear tastebuds along their sides
Vallate – very large, surrounded by a ring-shaped ridge.  Abundant taste buds along lower parts.
 
Filiform papillae are abundant on anterior parts of tongue
Fungiform papillae also found on anterior portion, especially along sides.
Vallate papilae form a “V-shaped” patch at back of tongue.
 
Taste bud consists of gustatory cells, support cells and basal cells.  Taste bud is located just below
   epithelium of tongue and opens through a taste pore.
 
Gustatory cells have small gustatory hairs (microvilli, not true cilia) that are bathed in saliva, where they
   come into contact with dissolved chemicals.
 
The gustatory hairs have receptor sites that are sensitive to only certain types of dissolved chemicals.
Sensory neuron dendrites wrapped around basal end of gustatory cell. 
Only five basic tastes exist: sweet, sour, bitter, salty, and umami; each produced by a specific type of
   ion.
 
Unique flavors of different food types are produced by combinations of the four basic flavors and
   olfactory sensations derived from olfactory epithelium.
Gustatory sensations are transmitted to brain along facial nerve and glossopharyngeal nerve.

The Ear and Hearing

The ear is responsible for the senses of hearing and equilibrium.
There are three parts to the entire organ:
The outer ear, the middle ear and the inner ear.
 
Know the structure of the outer ear.
Ceruminous glands produce cerumen in the external auditory canal.
 
The tympanum is at the end of the external auditory canal, separating outer ear from middle ear.
 
Know the middle ear ossicles and associated muscles.
Which ossicle fits into the oval window?  What is the function of the round window?

Sound waves that are transmitted from the tympanum to the oval window are increased in magnitude as
much as 20 times.  How?   What is the function of the eustachian tube?

 
The inner ear is composed of a membranous labyrinth housed within a bony labyrinth.
The bony labyrinth contains perilymph, the membranous labyrinth contains endolymph.
The bony labyrinth is divisible into three portions: 1) The vestibule, 2) the semicircular canal, and
3) the
cochlea.

The vestibule contains two membranous structures: the utricle and saccule, which are responsible for

the sensations of static equilibrium and linear acceleration.

The semicircular canals contain sensory structures called ampullae, which produce sensations

associated with angular acceleration.

The cochlea contains three separate spaces along its length.  The scala vestibuli, the scala tympani

and the cochlear duct.  The three are separated by the vestibular membrane and the basilar
membrane.  The cochlear duct contains the organ of Corti.

Know how these structures function to produce hearing.  How do sounds of different frequency

    generate sensations of different pitch?

Equilibrium.  Understand how otoliths participate in the production of sensations of equilibrium. 

What are the maculae? What is the cupula?  The crista ampullaris?

Vision

Know anatomy of eye sockets and associated muscles, glands, lids, and etc.

There are 6 extrinsic eye muscles: 4 rectus muscles and two obliques.  The superior oblique runs through a 
   ligamentous loop which acts as a pulley.

There are two eyelids, the dorsal more mobile.  A levator palpebrae muscle elevates the superior eyelid.
The eyelids contain a connective tissue structure called the tarsal plate.

Tarsal glands within the plate secrete an oily secretion that lubricates the surface of the eye.
The surface of the eye and the inner sruface of the eyelids are covered by a thin mucosal epithelium called
   the conjunctiva.
The surface of the eye is also kept moist by a gland called the lacrimal gland, which secretes tears.
Tears are drained through the lacrimal punctae into the nasolacrimal duct.

The opening in the skin through which the eye looks is the palpebral fissure, the corners of the eye are called
the lateral and medial commissures.  The medial commissure contains the lacrimal caruncle.  What is its function?
What are the functions of the eyelashes and the eyebrows?

The eyeball is composed of three layers of tissue.
The fibrous tunic, which includes the sclera and cornea,
the vascular tunic, which includes the choroid, ciliary body and iris, and the nervous tunic, which is the retina.

The lens is composed of densely packed proteins, and is held suspended behind the pupil by a suspensory
ligament of zonular fibers, which connect to a covering of connective tissue called the lens capsule.

Know the mechanism by which accomodation occurs.
Know the mechanism by which the iris contracts and dilates.

The eye contains two hollow portions called the anterior and posterior cavities. 
These are separated from one another by the lens.

The posterior cavity contains the gelatinous vitreous humor, which helps to maintain the retina in place.
The anterior cavity contains the aqueous humor, and can be further divided into an anterior and a posterior
chamber by the iris.

Know where aqueous humor comes from and how it circulates.
What is glaucoma?  What causes it?
Know the structure of the retina. What cells are involved?
Light sensitive cells include the rods and the cones.

Know which of these cells is more sensitive to light, movement, color, etc.  How are they distributed on the retina?  How does this distribution pattern affect vision?

Know fovea centralis, macula lutea and blind spot.

What is the pathway that visual impulses take on their way into and through the brain?
What is refraction?  How does it affect light in the eye?  What is convergence?
What structures does light pass through in the eye on its way to the retina?

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