Anatomy and Physiology I
Sheet for Final Exam
The final exam will take place on Thursday, May 6 at 5:00 PM. It will be a comprehensive exam
of approximately 100 questions. You will have two hours to
complete the exam. Two thirds of it will cover
new material summarized below. One third will cover old material
that can be found summarized on the previous study guides. Please
remember to bring #2 pencils.
the general components of the
adult brain: Meninges, ventricles, cerebrospinous
cerebellum, diencephalon, brainstem: midbrain, pons, and medulla
Know the developmental processes
involved in brain development, and the names of the
of the embryonic brain:
Which parts of the adult brain are derived from each part of the embryonic brain?
Know: Brain waves,
the parts of the cerebrum and
What are gyri
the following terms:
the following terms:
the functions of the hypothalamus
as discussed in lecture ( 8 functions).
the functions of the limbic
superior colliculi, inferior colliculi.
has apneustic and pneumotaxic
oblongata: pyramids, olives,
and the following nuclei:
center, Vasomotor center,
is the reticular formation? The
reticular activating system?
the cerebellum, its parts and
superior sagittal sinus,
Subarachnoid space, cerebrospinous fluid, meningitis.
the lateral ventricles, foramina
of Monroe, third ventricle, cerebral aqueducts, fourth
the route followed by the
cerebrospinous fluid. What are the
the 12 cranial nerves by number,
name, and whether they are Sensory, Motor or
Which body part is innervated? Where does each originate
in the brain.
VIII Vestibulocochlear S
IX Glossopharyngeal B
The Autonomic Nervous
system includes a series of motor nerve pathways that supply the
The Autonomic Nervous
System consists of two components:
Nervous System, and the Parasympathetic Nervous System.
The Sympathetic Division.
sympathetic nervous system produces
stimulatory effects on body parts that participate in the “fight
system also generally produces inhibitory effects on the body systems
with the “resting and
response involves: vasodilation of vasculature to skeletal muscles,
pupillary dilation and stimulation of sweat glands.
response also results in: decreased blood supply to digestive
decreased production of digestive enzymes, decreased blood flow to the
nervous system has the opposite effect on all of these systems.
pathways involve two successive neurons: the preganglionic and the
nervous system emanates from thoracic and lumbar regions of the spinal
neuron is usually short, the postganglionic fiber long.
division, most of the ganglia are located alongside the vertebral
are interconnected with one another, hence the name: sympathetic chain
enter the sympathetic chain ganglia via the white ramus communicans,
fibers reenter the spinal nerve pathway via the gray ramus communicans.
sympathetic fibers (called splanchnic nerves) pass through the chain
synapse in collateral ganglia.
The Parasympathetic Division
parasympathetic nervous system the nerves emanate from the cranial
hence this division of the Autonomic nervous system is often called the
preganglionic fibers are long, and the ganglion is usually near or in
postganglionic fiber is very short.
nerve fibers exit from the brain in cranial nerves III, VII, IX, and X.
Know the role played
by the adrenal gland in the sympathetic nervous system.
norepinephrine (=adrenalin and noradrenalin).
Also: acetylcholine is produced by preganglionic
(cholinergic). Postganglionic fibers
generally produce norepinephrine (adrenergic).
General senses can
relatively simple, widespread senses such as touch, pressure, pain, temperature
involve complex receptor organs that are sensitive to minor changes in
emanating from environmental sources.
Somatic senses are
those that come in from the outer parts of the body, including skin,
and special sense organs. (usually
Visceral senses are
those that come directly from internal viscera. (usually called
receive information about the position of body parts from stretch
Know the following
Bulb of Krause
Know the following
Neurotendinous receptors (Golgi tendon organs)
Sensory hair cells
pain, Phantom pain
sensory organs that are sensitive to different chemical substances.
Based on hair cell mechanism.
Two types: Olfactory
the sense of smell – Sensory hair-cells are located in the upper
epithelium, supported by support cells and bathed in
cells have receptor proteins on cilia (hair of hair cells), these react
only one type of
odor molecule, setting up an action potential.
Axons of the sensory
neurons converge at cribriform plate and pass through cribriform
olfactory nerves (cranial nerve I).
Sensory input is
conducted to olfactory bulb, then along olfactory tract to temporal
the sense of taste.
The organs of taste
are called taste buds.
These are usually
located on lingual papillae.
There are three
types of lingual papillae:
Filiform - long and
thin, no taste buds
mushroom-shaped, bear tastebuds along their sides
Vallate – very
surrounded by a ring-shaped ridge.
Abundant taste buds along lower parts.
abundant on anterior parts of tongue
also found on anterior portion, especially along sides.
Vallate papilae form
a “V-shaped” patch at back of tongue.
Taste bud consists
gustatory cells, support cells and basal cells. Taste
bud is located just below
of tongue and opens through a taste pore.
Gustatory cells have
small gustatory hairs (microvilli, not true cilia) that are bathed in
into contact with dissolved chemicals.
The gustatory hairs
have receptor sites that are sensitive to only certain types of
dendrites wrapped around basal end of gustatory cell.
Only five basic
tastes exist: sweet, sour, bitter, salty, and umami; each produced by a
specific type of
Unique flavors of
different food types are produced by combinations of the four basic
sensations derived from olfactory epithelium.
are transmitted to brain along facial nerve and glossopharyngeal nerve.
The Ear and Hearing
The ear is
responsible for the senses of hearing and equilibrium.
There are three
to the entire organ:
The outer ear, the
middle ear and the inner ear.
Know the structure
the outer ear.
produce cerumen in the external auditory canal.
The tympanum is at
the end of the external auditory canal, separating outer ear from
Know the middle ear
ossicles and associated muscles.
Which ossicle fits
into the oval window? What is the
function of the round window?
Sound waves that are
transmitted from the tympanum to the oval window are increased in
as 20 times. How?
What is the function of the eustachian
The inner ear is
composed of a membranous labyrinth housed within a bony labyrinth.
The bony labyrinth
contains perilymph, the membranous labyrinth contains endolymph.
The bony labyrinth
divisible into three portions: 1) The vestibule, 2) the semicircular
3) the cochlea.
contains two membranous structures: the utricle and saccule, which are
sensations of static equilibrium and linear acceleration.
canals contain sensory structures called ampullae, which produce
with angular acceleration.
The cochlea contains
three separate spaces along its length.
The scala vestibuli, the scala tympani
the cochlear duct. The three are
separated by the vestibular membrane and the basilar
membrane. The cochlear duct contains the organ of
Know how these
structures function to produce hearing.
How do sounds of different frequency
sensations of different pitch?
Equilibrium. Understand how otoliths
participate in the
production of sensations of equilibrium.
the maculae? What is the cupula? The
anatomy of eye sockets and
associated muscles, glands, lids, and etc.
are 6 extrinsic eye muscles: 4 rectus muscles and two obliques.
The superior oblique runs through a
ligamentous loop which acts as a pulley.
There are two eyelids, the dorsal more
mobile. A levator palpebrae muscle
elevates the superior eyelid.
The eyelids contain a connective
tissue structure called the tarsal plate.
Tarsal glands within the plate secrete
an oily secretion that lubricates the surface of the eye.
The surface of the eye and the inner
sruface of the eyelids are covered by a thin mucosal epithelium called
The surface of the eye is also kept
moist by a gland called the lacrimal gland, which secretes tears.
Tears are drained through the lacrimal
punctae into the nasolacrimal duct.
The opening in the skin through which
the eye looks is the palpebral fissure, the corners of the eye are
lateral and medial commissures. The
medial commissure contains the lacrimal caruncle. What
is its function?
What are the functions of the eyelashes
and the eyebrows?
eyeball is composed of three
layers of tissue.
The fibrous tunic, which includes the
sclera and cornea,
the vascular tunic, which includes the
choroid, ciliary body and iris, and the nervous tunic, which is the
The lens is composed of densely packed
proteins, and is held suspended behind the pupil by a suspensory
zonular fibers, which connect to a covering of connective tissue called
Know the mechanism by which
Know the mechanism by which the iris
contracts and dilates.
eye contains two hollow portions
called the anterior and posterior cavities.
These are separated from one another
by the lens.
The posterior cavity contains the
gelatinous vitreous humor, which helps to maintain the retina in place.
The anterior cavity contains the
aqueous humor, and can be further divided into an anterior and a
chamber by the iris.
Know where aqueous humor comes from
and how it circulates.
What is glaucoma? What causes it?
Know the structure of the retina. What
cells are involved?
Light sensitive cells include the rods
and the cones.
Know which of these cells is more
sensitive to light, movement, color, etc.
How are they distributed on the retina?
How does this distribution pattern affect vision?
Know fovea centralis, macula lutea and
What is the
that visual impulses take on their way into and through the brain?
refraction? How does it affect light in
the eye? What is convergence?
What structures does
light pass through in the eye on its way to the retina?
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