Review Sheet for A&PI, First Exam

Familiarize yourself with the following terms and concepts.  Some of these items will be on the test.          
      Some items may also be on the test that are not mentioned here.  Review your notes and your textbook.

Anatomy – the study of the structure of the body and the physical relationships among
                           its parts.
Physiology – the study of the function of the body’s parts, particularly with respect to
                           the physical and chemical processes that occur there.

Levels of organization

          A. Atoms
         
B. Molecules
          C. Cell
          D. Tissues
          E. Organs
          F. Systems
          G. Indivual organisms

  Homeostasis: Maintenance of a constant set of physical and chemical conditions within the human body

Feedback systems.  Components:
   Sensor
   Integration center
   Effector

Examples:
Body temperature regulation
Oxytocin and childbirth
Fever

Basic Chemistry

Know the following terms:
Element                                  Covalent bond
Atom                                       Ionic bond
Molecule                                 Hydrogen bond
Electron                                  pH
Proton                                     Acid
Neutron                                   Base
Isotope                                   Neutral solution
Atomic number                       Buffer
Atomic mass
Atomic orbital shells
Ion

Understand the relationship between pH and concentration of hydrogen ions.
Understand how a buffer works.  Be sure to review the carbonic acid example from blood chemistry.

organic chemicals contain Carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.

What is a monomer and what is a polymer? Know examples of each.

There are four basic classes of organic molecules.
Know the differences between these them and some examples of each type.

Carbohydrates
            Monosaccharides
            Disaccharides
            Polysaccharides
Lipids:
         Triglycerides
         Phospholipids
         Glycolipids
         Steroids

Proteins:
         Enzymes

Nucleic acids
         DNA
         RNA

Review the four levels of protein structure: primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary.
Know the basic structure and function of an ATP molecule.

Know the following terms

Catalyst                                  Activation energy                             Polysaccharide
Enzyme                                  Amino acids                                     Glycogen
ATP                                        Peptide bonds                                  Product
Monosaccharide                   Steroids                                            Substrate
Disaccharide                         Phospholipids                                  Starch
Fatty acid                               Triglycerides                                     DNA
Glycerol                                  Dehydration synthesis                     RNA
Denaturation                          Hydrolysis                                         Nucleic Acid
Micelle                                    Purine                                               Pyrimidine

Cells have three basic components:

Plasma membrane
Cytoplasm
Nucleus

The plasma membrane or Cell membrane is a matrix of phospholipid molecules with
            embedded proteins. 

This membrane is semipermeable or selectively permeable. Know the various roles
            played by the proteins in the cell membrane.

Parts of the cell are held in place by a cytoskeleton. This is composed of proteinaceous fibers of various types, including:
Microfilaments – actin, 6 nm
Intermediate filamaments – various proteins, 7-11 nm
Thick filaments – myosin, 15 nm
Microtubules – tubulin, 25 nm

Know the structure and function of the following organelles and be able to identify them in a diagram:
Cilia                            Mitochondrion                                   Nuclear envelope
Flagellum                   Nucleolus                                           Nuclear pores
Ribosome                  Pseudopodia
Golgi apparatus        Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
Lysozome                  Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum

Know the function and purpose of the following processes:

Endocytosis
Phagocytosis                                                    Diffusion
Pinocytosis                                                       Osmosis
Receptor mediated endocytosis                    Carrier mediated passive transport
                                                                           Carrier mediated active transport
Exocytosis                                                         Secondary Active Transport

 What are the definitions of the following terms?
Hypotonic                   Osmotic pressure                 Crenulation
Isotonic                       Osmolality                             Specificity
Hypertonic                  Lysis                                       Saturation

The nucleus

Chromosomes                      Nucleotides                Deoxyribose                         rRNA
Genes                                     Thymine                    Phosphate group                  codon
Transcription                          Cytosine                    Nitrogenous base                anticodon
Translation                             Adenine                    DNA polymerase
Chromatids                            Guanine                    RNA polymerase
Centromeres                         Uracil                          tRNA
Cytokinesis                            Ribose                      mRNA

 Know the cell cycle and the stages of mitosis, what is happening in each?
Interphase
Prophase
Metaphase
Anaphase
Telophase
What is the function of mitosis?

Understand the processes of transcription and translation, where they occur in the cell, what are the
  differences between them and what is their purpose?

Histology - the study of tissues.
Know the following four basic tissue types, and the differences between them.

1. Epithelial
2. Connective
3. Muscle
4. Nervous
 

Understand the basis for the following classification scheme of these tissues, and know examples of
  each type.

Epithelial Tissues
Simple                                    Stratified
   Simple squamous                     Stratified squamous
   Simple cuboidal                        Stratified cuboidal
   Simple columnar                       Transitional
   Simple ciliated columnar
  
Pseudostratified Ciliated Columnar
Connective tissue
   Mesenchyme
   Connective tissue proper
      Loose Areolar C. T.
      Dense Regular C. T.
      Dense Irregular C. T.
     
Elaxtic C. T.
      Reticular C. T.
      Adipose C. T.
   Cartilage
      Hyaline Cartilage
      Fibrocartilage
     
Elastic Cartilage
   Bone
      Compact bone
      Spongy bone
   Blood (erythrocytes, leukocytes, thrombocytes)
Muscle Tissue
   Smooth muscle
   Striated muscle
   Cardiac muscle
Nervous Tissue
   Neurons
   Neuroglia

Integument

Know the functions of the integumentary system as presented in lecture.

Know the following breakdown of parts, and their functions as mentioned in lecture:

Epidermis                                         Dermis
Stratum corneum                              Papillary layer
Stratum lucidum                                Reticular layer
Stratum granulosum                         Hypodermis
Stratum spinosum
Stratum basale

Glands:                                             Hair:                                       Nails:
Sebaceous                            Shaft               Medulla                     Body
Sudoriferous                          Root                Cortex                       Free edge
Eccrine                                   Bulb                Cuticle                       Root
Apocrine                                Dermal papilla                                  Nail bed
Mammary glands                                                                             Hyponychium
Ceruminous glands                                                                         Eponychium
                                                                                                           Nail matrix
                                                                                                           Lunula

Understand the following terms and their significance:                                                             

Arrector pili                            Vasoconstriction                             
Melanocyte                            Vasodilation
Melanin                                   Tyrosinase
Carotene                                Dehydrocholesterol
Hemoglobin                           Rickets
Vitamin D                               Eumelanin
Albinism                                 Pheomelanin
Friction Ridges                      Flush
Flexion lines
                           Dermal papilla
Flexion creases

 What are the processes involved in thermoregulation?
What is the significance of Vitamin D?
How can sunlight damage skin?

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